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Glossary of Terms and Definitions
|Activation Function||A function that is used in all neurons within a Neural Network to constrain the output of each neuron into a range that is useful to the programmer (McCaffrey, 2014; Raval, “Which activation function should I use?” 2017; Shah, 2017).|
|Computer Logic Gate||An electronic component that performs a logical function.|
|Data Structure||A method of management/organization of data in software that allows for efficient access and modification.|
|Dendrite||A connection between two neurons within a Neural Network. Each dendrite has a weight which is used in the calculation of a neuron’s value (McCaffrey, 2014; Sanderson, “What is backpropagation really doing? Deep learning, chapter 3” 2017; Sanderson, “Backpropagation calculus: Deep learning, chapter 4” 2017).|
|Error||The Error refers to the overall deviation from the desired outputs of the Neural Network. The error is calculated as the Neural Network’s average squared difference from the Neural Network prediction value and corresponding correct value.|
|Epoch/Generation||Every time a Neural Network revisits each of the given test data points when training with a learning algorithm.|
|Feed Forward||The process in which a Neural Network passes values through its neurons to compute the overall output of the Neural Network (Zell, 1997).|
|Fitness Rating||The rating that is given to the specific Neural Network that measures how well the Neural Network completed the given task.|
|Fitness Calculation||A calculation that the Genetics Learning Algorithm performs to find each Neural Network’s fitness rating. In this research project specifically, the fitness ratings were calculated as the Neural Network’s error or deviation from the desired output(s).|
|Learning algorithms||Computational formulas used in machine learning to help the technology imitate the human learning process (Grimson, 2017).|
|Learning/Training Process||The process in which a Neural Network’s dendrites are manipulated by a Learning Algorithm. This process is what “teaches” the Neural Network allowing it to successfully complete tasks with minimal error.|
|Learning Rate||The constant value in which the Backpropagation Learning Algorithm uses to limit its dendrite weight updates lowering the magnitude of its steps towards a lower error (Sanderson, “Backpropagation calculus: Deep learning, chapter 4” 2017).|
|Machine Learning||A method of data analysis that uses computers to identify patterns and make decisions with minimal human intervention (Grimson, 2017).|
|Momentum Rate||The multiplier used to limit the influence of the previous dendrite weight updates on the new dendrite weight update.|
|Neural Network||A data structure that acts as a mathematical function mapping specific inputs to corresponding outputs (Loy, 2018; McCaffrey, 2014; Zell, 1997).|
|Overfitting||The process in machine learning where a learning algorithm too closely fits a limited set of data points hindering it from understanding the underlying pattern and thus from predicting future points in the series (Dietterich, 1995).|
|Plateau||A period of time in which the error of a learning algorithm is stagnant despite continuous training.|
|Training Data||Data that the learning algorithm uses to train the Neural Network.|
|Supervised Data||Data that is labeled with the correct output that the Neural Network is set to predict.|
|Weight Update||A weight update is a value calculated by the Backpropagation Learning Algorithm which identifies the direction and distance each dendrite should follow to minimize the Neural Network’s error.|
XOR Test Results
|Backpropagation Learning Algorithm||Genetics Learning Algorithm|
|Test Number||Epoch Count||Time (Milliseconds)||Test Number||Generation Count||Time (Milliseconds)|
|Epoch Count||Time (Milliseconds)||Generation Count||Time (Milliseconds)|
|1st Quartile:||4150.5||239.348025||1st Quartile:||122.25||214.5134|
|3rd Quartile:||7475.5||406.024125||3rd Quartile:||222||334.2299|
Reptile Classification Test Results
|Training Time (in milliseconds)||Backpropagation Prediction Percent||Genetics Prediction Percent|
Activation Function Definitions
|Soft Sign Function|
Project Source Code
The project source code written to conduct the research has been publicly shared through Github for other researchers to access. The following link has the code which was created under Amitai’s Github account.