Determining the Ecological Impacts of the Invasive Land Planarian Bipalium kewense: An Analysis of Predatory Behavior and Reproductive Potential



Bertone, M., Crawley, S., & Waldvogel, M. (2020, December 8). Terrestrial Flatworms, Land Planarians & Hammerhead Worms. NC State Extension Publications.

Callaham, M. A., Jr, Stewart, A. J., Alarcón, C., & McMillen, S. J. (2002). Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils. Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 21(8), 1658–1663.

Choate, P. M., & Dunn, R. (August, 1998). Land Planarians – Bipalium kewense Moseley and Dolichoplana striata Moseley. Featured Creatures.

Clements, R.O., Murray, P.J., & Sturdy, R.G. (1991, June). The impact of 20 years’ absence of earthworms and three levels of N fertilizer on a grassland soil environment. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 36(1-2), 75-85. doi:10.1016/0167-8809(91)90037-X. 

Gentile, L., Cebria, F., & Bartscherer, K. (2011). The planarian flatworm: An in vivo model for stem cell biology and nervous system regeneration. Disease Models & Mechanisms, 2011 4: 12-19; doi: 10.1242/dmm.006692. 

Heeter, K. (2019, August 13). The Importance of Red Worms in the Ecosystem. Sciencing.

Ivey, G. (2016, April 27). Attack of the Killer Jumping Worms. The North Carolina Arboretum.

Justine J, Winsor L, Gey D, Gros P, Thévenot J. (2018, May 22). Giant worms chez moi! Hammerhead flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae, Bipalium spp., Diversibipalium spp.) in metropolitan France and overseas French territories. PeerJ, 6:e4672

Karami, A., Tebyanian, H., Goodarzi, V., & Shiri, S. (2015, November). Planarians: An In Vivo Model for Regenerative Medicine. International Journal of Stem Cells, 8(2): 128–133. doi: 10.15283/ijsc.2015.8.2.128 

Lines-Kelly, R. (1993, September). How earthworms can help your soil. Department of Primary Industries.

Maddi, E. L. (2019). Asian Jumping Worm (Megascolecidae) Impacts on Physical and Biological Characteristics of Turfgrass Ecosystems. [Honors Theses, Colby College]. Paper 965.

Mazzotti, F. J., & Briggs-Gonzalez, V. (n.d.). A Summary of Invasive Species Risk Assessments, and Proposed and Existing Assessment Frameworks. Retrieved from

McLaughlin, C. (2009, November 19). Why You Want Red Worms and Earthworms (Nightcrawlers) in Your Garden. FineGardening.

Murchie, A.K., Gordon, A.W. (2012, September). The impact of the ‘New Zealand flatworm’, Arthurdendyus triangulatus, on earthworm populations in the field. Biological Invasions, 15, 569–586.

Pennington Fertilizer. (2020, May 11). All You Need to Know About Earthworm Castings.

Price-Christenson, G. J., Johnston, M. R., Herrick, B. M., & Yannarell, A. C. (2020). Influence of invasive earthworms (Amynthas spp.) on Wisconsin forest soil microbial communities and soil chemistry. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 149, 107955.

Ritson-Williams, R., Yotsu-Yamashita, M., & Paul, V. J. (2006). Ecological functions of tetrodotoxin in a deadly polyclad flatworm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(9), 3176–3179.

Sever, M. (2020, September 29). Invasive jumping worms damage U.S. soil and threaten forests. Science News.

Sluys, R. (2016). Invasion of the Flatworms. American Scientist, 104(5), 288. DOI: 10.1511/2016.122.288.

Stokes AN, Ducey PK, Neuman-Lee L, Hanifin CT, French SS, et al. (2014) Confirmation and Distribution of Tetrodotoxin for the First Time in Terrestrial Invertebrates: Two Terrestrial Flatworm Species (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense). PLOS ONE 9(6): e100718.