The Power of Marketing in Fashion: The Reality of the Fast Fashion Industry

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Abstract

The fast fashion industry is currently under pressure from their customers to address sustainability concerns and its long-lasting environmental impact on particularly developing countries. This study explores marketing strategies used by these fast fashion companies that lure customers in while navigating the complex intersection of sustainability and climate change issues within developing countries. The research delves into the challenges posed by the industry’s carbon footprint due to overproduction and the lack of use of sustainable materials, while shedding light on the evolving consumer positive attitudes and wants towards sustainable fashion. Through an in-depth analysis of case studies, market trends, and consumer behaviours, this paper identifies the sustainable marketing approaches of fast fashion companies, a deeper dive into the working conditions of fast fashion workers, findings of the largest consumer group and the negative effect fast fashion production has on developing countries. 

Introduction

In recent decades, the global fashion industry has undergone a transformative shift marked by the rise of fast fashion – a business model characterized by rapid production, quick turnover of trends, affordability and manufacture of clothes that are pleasing to the eye. While fast fashion brands have achieved remarkable success in meeting consumer demands for trendy and inexpensive clothing, the consequences of their marketing strategies extend beyond the storefront. By enabling fast fashion companies to sell more unsustainable clothes worldwide, these marketing strategies are contributing to the climate crisis. Through these social media advertising strategies, consumers are more likely to buy an excessive amount of fast fashion clothing to follow the current trends leading to a large amount of waste because of the cheap material. The textile waste creates the greatest impact for developing countries since these developing countries don’t have the advanced resources to get rid of the waste that is left in their country. This paper explores the intricate relationship between fast fashion marketing strategies and their far-reaching effects on the socio-economic fabric of nations striving for development while focusing on my research question: “What are the marketing strategies for the fast fashion industry to cope with the sustainability and climate change issues in the developing countries”? The intent of this question is to find a solution to the problem of textile waste in developing countries and what developed countries can do to help with this matter.

The marketing practices employed by fast fashion brands play a pivotal role in shaping consumer behaviour, influencing trends, and creating a sense of urgency among consumers to constantly update their wardrobes even when their wardrobes are already filled with clothes. This “fast turnover” model not only contributes to environmental concerns but also has profound implications for the labour force and economies of developing countries that often serve as the manufacturing hubs for these brands and suffer the most from the effects of climate change. Key themes include the marketing strategies used by these fast fashion companies, supply chain transparency, circular fashion initiatives, and the integration of sustainable practices into branding and communication strategies. Furthermore, the study investigates the role of digital marketing, social media, and influencer collaborations in promoting sustainable fashion choices among consumers in developing countries. Additionally, even though most people are aware of the fast fashion industry on a surface level, people might not be aware about the extent the fast fashion industry has on the environment and developing countries, so the research paper aims to give an in-depth analysis on the fast fashion industry as a whole.

This paper delves into the intricate web of ethical and economic considerations that arise as a consequence of the fast fashion industry’s marketing strategies. By examining the impact on both the labour force and the environment in developing countries, we aim to spread the urgency of the climate crisis As we unravel the complexities of fast fashion, we gain insights into the challenges and opportunities for sustainable and equitable development in the global fashion landscape. It is important to study the environmental impacts and the marketing strategies of the fast fashion industry so we are able to have a clearer idea on the kinds of advertisement strategies these fast fashion companies use to persuade the audience and through learning about the negative impacts to consume less fast fashion pieces. 

This research on the marketing strategies for the fast fashion industry will be helpful for companies and frequent customers that produce and buy fast fashion items, giving them insight into the effects that fast fashion has on climate change. Discovering the popularity of how fashion has become in recent years and how negatively it has impacted our environment, it is significant to publish a paper with individual thoughts and analysis on this positive change to the fashion industry and provide plans and solutions on ways to reduce the creation of fast fashion in the near future. Creating a change in this industry is so important in our modern-day as the effects of climate change have become more prominent. Knowing that it would be hard for many fast fashion companies to stop producing and advertising their products, this paper provides for instance knowledge and useful proposals. 

Methodology

The methodology of this study is designed to explore the complex relationship between fast fashion, sustainability, and climate change, with a particular focus on developing countries. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of these interrelated topics, the research will employ three primary methods: a literature review, survey, and an interview.

The literature review serves as a foundational aspect of this research, enabling a deep dive into the existing body of knowledge surrounding fast fashion, its marketing strategies, sustainability issues, and the impact on climate change. This methodological approach is chosen to synthesize diverse perspectives and findings from previous studies, reports, and academic papers. By critically examining the literature, this study aims to identify patterns, gaps, and emergent themes related to the fast fashion industry, including how it markets to various demographics and the consequent environmental ramifications. The literature review will facilitate an informed analysis of the sustainability challenges posed by fast fashion and potential pathways for mitigating its impact on climate change, especially in developing countries. The strengths of using the literature review approach is being able to combine multiple pieces of information that answer my question and provide evidence for my question as well. Moreover, with the literature review approach, it will allow the reader to gain a deeper understanding of the fast fashion industry since the literature review section provides context for the research topic.

An interview will be conducted to provide insight into an individual’s personal experience with climate change and the fast fashion industry, which would help the reader put into a clearer perspective of the issue itself and what developed countries can actually do better to help out these developing countries, like the Philippines. The strengths of using the interview approach is that we are able to hear the first hand experiences through the interviewee, instead of only learning about the second hand information online about the fast fashion industry. The weakness of the interview approach is as the interviewer, you are unsure about the information the interviewee is providing you is the actual truth, which could potentially result in inaccurate findings.

Complementing the literature review, a survey will be conducted to gather primary data on consumer perceptions and behaviours regarding fast fashion and its link to climate change. Targeting individuals aged 13-18 across both developing and developed nations, the survey is designed to capture a broad spectrum of opinions and experiences. This age group is particularly relevant as it represents a significant segment of fast fashion’s target market and the future generation that will inherit the consequences of current environmental practices. The survey will be distributed via public platforms, aiming to reach a diverse cross-section of respondents to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the issue from multiple perspectives.

The use of a survey is pivotal for this study as it provides first-hand insights into the attitudes and consumption patterns of young consumers towards fast fashion. Analyzing the survey results will enable the identification of trends regarding age-specific purchasing behaviours and the awareness level of the environmental impact of these practices. This data will be instrumental in assessing the effectiveness of current marketing strategies employed by fast fashion brands and exploring potential strategies for promoting more sustainable consumption habits among young consumers. The strengths of the survey approach is that we are able to hear the perspectives of many people when it comes to the fast fashion industry through the asked questions. The weakness of the survey approach is that we are not sure if all the participants of the survey are truthful with their answers. Since the survey was sent out electronically, it is hard to be sure that the participants actually answered truthfully or not.

Together, the literature review, survey and interview methodologies will provide a robust framework for investigating the intricate dynamics between fast fashion, sustainability, and climate change. These approaches will allow for a nuanced analysis that combines theoretical insights with empirical data, offering a well-rounded perspective on the challenges and opportunities for fostering environmental sustainability in the context of fast fashion. Using all three of these methods, the reader is able to gain a full understanding of the negative impacts of the fast fashion industry, since the reader is able to get perspectives of participants from 13-18 years old through the survey, information from the interviewees and information from the literature review.

Literature Review

One study showed that in 2018, the fashion sector was responsible for approximately 2.1 billion metric tons of GHG emissions, half of which were created by fast fashion1. Fast fashion brands produce high volumes of synthetic, petroleum-based garments in developing countries, creating high levels of emissions and textile waste that usually takes more than one thousand years to dissolve back into the earth. As the urgency of the climate crisis intensifies, it is essential for the fast fashion industry to recognize the magnitude of their contribution to global emissions and landfill waste2

To keep up with the increasing demand for new clothing, fast fashion companies such as Zara or H&M have been advancing their marketing strategies to their customers3 These include five types of marketing claims—product orientation claims, process orientation claims, image orientation claims, environmental fact claims, and a combination of these claims—to advertise their products4 People from ages 18 to 35 are typically more fashion-conscious and receptive to new trends. This demographic is more influenced by fast fashion due to its ability to quickly deliver trendy items5

Sustainable marketing provides opportunities for apparel retailers to attract new groups of customers. As more and more consumers of fast fashion become more concerned about the issue of climate change, marketers of fast fashion can use environmental marketing claims, including offering green products and engaging in socially responsible activities, to attract more consumers who are concerned about environmental issues4 Furthermore, sustainable marketing is important in the fast fashion industry because it is securing the future by focusing on recycled waste in sourcing, free energy in production, and more efficient systems in transportation6

To cater to environmentally-conscious consumers and appear sustainable, companies have employed a variety of strategies. One strategy is to create sustainable labels that include the brand name and a word that has to do with the sustainability of the company; for instance, H&M Conscious. Another sustainable marketing strategy involves increasing brand transparency through creating a statement of climate consumption that relates to the delivery of products and/or the business as a whole. Additionally, businesses use ‘recycle for reward’, meaning that consumers can recycle their old clothing in a store in order to receive a discount3

Despite the success of these advertising strategies, consumers still tend to hoard clothing when a new fast-fashion clothing line drops, even if the clothes are ill-fitting or not their style7 Most of these clothes end up in the back of the closet or in the waste bin. Moreover, even self-proclaimed ‘environmentally-conscious’ consumers typically don’t recycle their clothing7 Old and worn fast-fashion clothing pieces usually end up in developing countries, most of them washed up on the shore, making the water unsanitary to drink or use. With slow technological advancement, citizens in developing countries are at a loss when it comes to solving this issue8 Fast fashion industries have left irreversible consequences not only on the environment of developing countries but also on the lives of their inhabitants9

In order for companies in the fast fashion industry to sell their products at surprisingly low prices, they must use cheap materials alongside cheap labour. The manufacturing hubs for fast fashion are defined as places that violate more than one federal or state law governing minimum wage and overtime, child labour, industrial homework, occupational safety and health, workers’ compensation, or industry regulation10 Under harsh working conditions, workers are getting paid below minimum wage and are putting their health on the line10 However, since these developing countries don’t have many job opportunities available, these factory workers still choose to work in these harsh conditions so they can stay alive. The lack of rights these developing countries have when it comes to fast fashion production is a prominent issue. For example, in Bangladesh (a developing country), 67 percent of children work because their families are suffering economically and require children to work to help support their families. Moreover, these children work for over 43 hours or more without a break, while earning little pay to help their families11 Many of these low income families rely heavily on their children’s salary to get out of poverty, which is why many young children (14 and under) in Bangladesh are employed.

Lastly, fast fashion pollution greatly impacts deforestation and chemical pollution. The production of unnatural textile fibres causes 150 million trees to be cut annually. Cotton cultivation covers a large land surface, which is a limited resource and degrades the soil quality12  Moreover, throughout the whole production process of synthetic fibres, requires large amounts of chemicals and high use of thermal and electrical energy mainly produced from non – renewable resources12. Table 1 explores studies conducted on the fast fashion industry and compares and contrasts their findings.

Table 1: Literature Review

In summary there were a few frameworks proposed. Author one, author seven and author ten all examined the climate effects of the fast fashion industry, while author two, author three and author five all examined the advertising strategies of the fast fashion industry. Also author four examined the effects on developing countries, author six examined the effects fast fashion has on developing countries. Author six examined what we can do to stop the consumption of fast fashion clothing and author nine examined the working conditions of fast fashion factory workers and Author eleven examined the impacts that the fast fashion industry has on deforestation and the chemicals used in the production process.

My research will be particularly build on author one, two, three, five, four, six, seven, ten and address a gap in the literature by combining the finding from these seven research papers relating to my question “What are the marketing strategies for the fast fashion industry to cope with the sustainability and climate change issues in the developing countries”?, to create a research paper that highlights the importance of this issue within our community.

StudyThemeMethodsCountry/ Market Factors/ Dimensions/ Variables Findings
1. Wren, 2023Sustainable supply chain management in the fast fashion Industry  Quantitative & Qualitative Developing countries1. Marketing effectiveness   2. Points about the fast fashion industry relating to climate change in developing countries1. In 2018 the fashion sector was responsible for approximately 2.1 billion metric tons of GHG emissions, half of which was created by fast fashion 2. Fast fashion brands produce high volumes of synthetic, petroleum-based garments in developing countries, creating high levels of emissions and textile waste. 3. As the state of the climate becomes more urgent, it is essential for the fast fashion industry to recognize the magnitude of their contribution to global emissions and landfill waste. 4. If adopted at the industry level, these reforms will significantly mitigate fast fashion’s environmental impact and create a more sustainable industry for all
2. Ray, 2024Marketing Sustainable Fashion: Trends and Future DirectionsQuantitativeDeveloping countries1. How fast fashion contribute to greenhouse gases 2. Climate change and its negative consequence 3. Customers1. Sustainable fashion (SF) aims to address this issue by designing, creating, and marketing socially and environmentally responsible products 2. The physical risks of climate change challenge the existing supply chains, business models, and decision-making 3. Brands started looking for ways to reduce their negative impact on the planet and the people. 4. Sustainable fashion products can limit the negative impact of fashion, and marketing can help to make SF more popular
3.Paulsson and Ursing, 2020Marketing strategies of fast fashionQualitativeDeveloping countries1.Advertising strategies 2. Statistics of the seen differences1. Increasing in the ways they are designing their ads to fit the current trends 2. Using many different kid friendly advertising strategies to lure tweens and teens to purchase their clothing
4. Admin, 2024Effects of fast fashion/climate change in third world countriesQualitativeDeveloping countries1. Clothing in water filled with clothes 2. Climate change 3. Pollution1. Since developing countries don’t have the resources to recycle these old fast fashion clothing pieces, they are being washed onto their shore 2. These old clothing in the waters is polluting their air and water, however, these developing countries can do nothing as they don’t have resources.
5.Stall-Meadows & Davey, 2013Fast fashion advertising methodsQuantitative & QualitativeDeveloping countries1. Environmental advertising 2. Attracting more consumers to buy fast fashion1. Many fast fashion companies are trying to use the environmentally friendly promoting method to attract more customers that are concerned with climate change. 2. There are five kinds of marketing claims product orientation claims; process orientation claims; image orientation claims; environmental fact claims; and a combination of these claims.
6. Disalvo, 2020Fast fashion advertising methodsQualitativeDeveloping countries1. Tying the fast fashion industry to the 17 sustainable goals. 2. Fashion waste responsibility and reproduction1. A goal everyone should be working on is to consume less, so we can create less waste. 2. People should think about these questions before opening their wallet and buying these fashion pieces: Why are the brands ok? Why do we need to donate to the artisans? What inequality is going on here that the owners of these brands aren’t begging for themselves but for their developing country suppliers?
7.Joung, 2014.How fast fashion affect millennialsQuantitative & QualitativeDeveloping countries1. Post purchase behaviour 2. Life cycle of clothing1. In recent years the apparel industry has shortened the life cycle of fashion due to the recent trends. 2. Because of the trendiness and cheap prices, consumers purchase fast-fashion impulsively and purchase more than before. 3. According to the American Apparel & Footwear association, 19.4 billion garments with a retail value of 283.7 billion dollars sold in 2011 in the USA. 4. On average, an individual consumer spent $910 and purchased more than 62 garments in 2011.
8. Atique, 2024Evaluating Consumer Perceptions of Fast Fashion vs Sustainable Fashion: Implications of Marketing StrategiesQuantitative vs QualitativeFast fashion vs sustainable fashion1. How the fast fashion industry affect different age groups 2. What fast fashion entails 3. How the fast fashion industry affect different genders1. People from ages 18 to 35 are typically more fashion-conscious and receptive to new trends. This demographic is more influenced by fast fashion due to its ability to quickly deliver trendy items. 2. Female consumers are more detail-oriented and value-driven, seeking out the best combination of style, quality, and price.
9. Williams, 2022Exploring the Impacts of Fast Fashion From Environmental, Social, and Economic PerspectivesQualitativeDeveloping countries1. Cheap labour and material 2. Fast fashion industry in our current day.1. Manufacturing hubs for fast fashion are defined as places that violate more than one federal or state law. 2. Microfibers migrating into the ocean, UNCTAD stated that “around half a million tons of microfibre, which is the equivalent of 3 million barrels of oil, is now being dumped into the ocean every year.
10. Ritch, 2023Fashioning the Circular Economy with Disruptive Marketing TacticsQuantitative & QualitativeEffects on Developing Countries1. Climate crisis 2. Circular economy of fast fashion 3. Influencers1. With the climate emergency intensifying and limited time left to reduce irreversible consequences. 2. Fast fashion marketing tactics encourage frequent impulsive consumption of inexpensive garments, of which production is reliant upon scarce resources and exploitative practices.
11. Babe?-Bolyai University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Romania, 2020Sustainable supply chain management in the fast fashion IndustryQuantitativeDeveloping countries1. Deforestation 2. Chemical usage throughout the production cycle.  1.  The production of unnatural textile fibres causes 150 million trees to be cut annually. Cotton cultivation covers a large land surface, which is a limited resource and degrades the soil quality. 2. Throughout the whole production process of synthetic fibres, requires large amounts of chemicals and high use of thermal and electrical energy mainly produced from non – renewable resources.

Hypothesis Development

Teenagers today are immersed in social media environments where fast fashion advertisements are pervasive. Platforms like Instagram and TikTok, known for their visually driven content, are particularly effective in capturing the attention of young audiences. The visual appeal of advertisements—through engaging graphics, vibrant colours, and catchy music—plays a critical role in their effectiveness. These elements not only attract teenagers but also influence their purchasing behaviour by making the advertised products appear more desirable and trendier. Given the high frequency with which teenagers encounter fast fashion ads on these platforms, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such exposure significantly increases their likelihood of purchasing fast fashion items. Therefore, we posit that the visual and engaging nature of social media ads on platforms like Instagram and TikTok acts as a powerful driver in promoting fast fashion purchases among teenagers.

Hypothesis 1: Exposure to fast fashion advertisements on social media platforms like Instagram and TikTok significantly increases the likelihood of teenagers purchasing fast fashion items.

In the context of sustainable fashion, economic incentives and regulatory support are crucial mechanisms that can drive significant behavioural change among consumers. Teenagers, in particular, are highly responsive to price signals and external motivations. By offering economic incentives such as discounts on sustainable products or implementing policies that promote ethical fashion, it is possible to make sustainable fashion more accessible and appealing to this demographic. Regulatory support, such as stricter environmental standards and promoting transparency in the fashion industry, can further bolster these efforts by raising awareness and making sustainable practices more mainstream. Given that teenagers are already influenced by social media trends and marketing strategies, enhancing these influences with economic and regulatory measures could significantly increase their adoption of sustainable fashion practices. Cost is a significant factor. If sustainable options are made more economically attractive through subsidies or other incentives, teenagers may be more inclined to choose them. Economic incentives are assumed to positively influence consumer behaviour toward more sustainable practices. If teenagers are already inclined to support sustainable fashion, it suggests that economic incentives could further enhance this behavior. The willingness of teenagers to support sustainable fashion practices such as donating clothes or considering alternative brands. Moreover, the regulatory support, such as policies promoting sustainable fashion, could increase awareness and encourage sustainable behavior. Thus, it is hypothesised that economic incentives and regulatory support will significantly increase the likelihood of teenagers adopting sustainable fashion practices.

Hypothesis 2:  Economic incentives and regulatory support for sustainable fashion practices will increase the adoption of sustainable fashion among teenagers.

Survey

A survey was designed and distributed to capture the views of a specific demographic—individuals aged 13-18—in both developing and developed countries. The survey aimed to understand their perceptions of climate change in relation to the fast fashion industry, their consumption patterns, and the effectiveness of the industry’s marketing strategies. This method was chosen to gain insights directly from a demographic that frequently interacts with fast fashion brands. The survey was disseminated through various digital platforms, including Instagram stories, direct messages, and emails, specifically targeting the population of a high school attended by the researcher. The distribution period spanned two weeks, with the survey available for responses from Monday to the subsequent Sunday, ensuring ample time for detailed participation. A total of 43 students within the specified age group responded, providing valuable data on their consumption habits, awareness of the industry’s impact, and reactions to marketing strategies.

This study cannot ensure the awareness of 13 years old when it comes to understanding the fast fashion industry. However, as the study was conducted online, it can be assumed that the participants were active online users and have come into contact with fast fashion brands in the past, and therefore have an opinion on the buying of fast fashion and fast fashion clothing in general as they are consumers. Moreover, since students 13-18 year olds now spend a long time on social media, they have to have seen clothing ads and potentially bought clothes from them, meaning they have some knowledge relating to the fast fashion industry.

The rationale behind the questions is revolving around the impact of fast fashion in relation to climate change and advertisement of fast fashion clothing, some of the questions that I have included in my paper is to see the extent of knowledge students 13-18 has when it comes to the topic of the fast fashion industry and its negative impacts to our environment and developing countries, questions about if they have thought about their own consumption of fast fashion clothing, what class standing do they think fast fashion companies usually target and what they think they can do in their communities to minimise textile waste.

  Table 2: Questionnaire for Students Aged 13-18

Hi, everyone, My name is Tina Zou and I am currently in grade 11. If you have 5 or so minutes can you please fill out this questionnaire? This will really help me as I am currently writing a research paper and I would really appreciate it if you are able to fill this short questionnaire out so I can have some data for my survey section of my paper. Thank you so much!
QuestionsResponse Options% 13-18 yrs response (N = 45)
What kinds of fast fashion advertising have you seen recently that caught your eye?Instagram Youtube TikTok Google Other60% 28.9% 60% 13.3% 24.4%
Why do you think fast fashion advertising is so effective?Colour Graphics shown Catchy sound Precise Intriguing format40% 73.3% 26.7% 24.4% 6.7%
On a scale of 1-10 how much knowledge do you have on how the fast fashion industry affects developing countries?1-2 3-4 5-631.1% 60%
8.9%
What do you think schools or you personally can do to better reduce fast fashion consumption?Reduce buying from fast fashion brands   Thinking of alternative places to buy clothes   Lessons on how fast fashion affects climate change   Weekly updates on ways we can up-cycle our clothes   Host more clothing drives   Have tips to be sustainable posted around the school   Weekly reminders to consume less fast fashion48.9%       66.7%       51.1%       33.3%         51.1%     26.7%       20%    
What steps can we take to help developing countries who are struggling with this issue?Raise more awareness about this issue   Contribute money to organizations that are helping with this issue   Doing our part to reduce fashion waste   Spreading more awareness in your community and school  62.2%       60%         71.1%       42.2%
What age demographic do you think fast fashion brands target?13-14 years 15-16 years 17-18 years64.4% 82.2% 48.9%
What class demographic do you think fast fashion brands get the most revenue from?Lower Middle High42.2% 80% 17.8%
What age group do you think buys the most fast fashion items?13-14 15-16 17-1848.9% 71.1% 20%
What are some better ways to get rid of your old clothes?Donate to a clothing drive   Up-cycle them into new clothing pieces   Hold a clothing swap with your friends   Donate to a women shelter in need88.9%     35.6%       37.8%       75.6%

Descriptive Analysis

The survey results showed that according to students of ages 13-18, seeing advertisements about fast fashion is far more common on social media apps, like Instagram and Tiktok (both 60.5%), while it is less common for them to see advertisement recently from Google or Youtube as they don’t spend as much time on these platforms.

Figure 1: Fast Fashion Seen Recently by Students 13-18

Teenagers today spend so much time on social media on a daily basis. As they scroll through social media platforms like Instagram and Tiktok, the likelihood of an advertisement popping up on their feed has gone up in percentage as these social media platforms advance their functions. However, as a teenager, it is very unlikely for them to scroll on Google unless it’s for school, as there is no need to look for current trends or celebrity news on Google or YouTube when social media platforms exist.

Moreover, these fast fashion companies use the advantages of these social media platforms to create advertisements that are short and pleasing to the eyes of teenagers, using techniques like fun colours, graphics, music, intriguing fonts, etc. to attract customers to their websites. Also, they make these ads look like posts from Instagram for example, so the viewer won’t think of anything suspicious while scrolling through.

Figure 2: What Makes Fast Fashion Advertising so Effective

Figure 2 shows that the category with the highest percentage is graphics shown when looking at the effectiveness of an ad according to students from ages 13-18 years. The second most chosen category is the colour of the ad. Next, the category is catchy sound/music. After that, the category is the preciseness of the advertisement and last is the intriguing format.

As a teenager (ages 13-18) when scrolling through social media, the thing that catches people’s eyes first is what the clothing pieces look like. From a customer’s perspective when thinking about whether or not to buy the fast fashion pieces, having photos of the garment itself or other models wearing the garment that the ad is proposing will give a potential consumer a better idea of what the clothes will look like when worn. After seeing these clothing pieces, they are able to make a better judgement on whether or not they want to purchase that item. Since colour was the second most chosen category, as a teenager looking at an ad, the first thing that draws people from the age range of 13-18 years into the ad is the colours the advertising company chose. Making the ads appealing colours to teenagers is one of the great marketing strategies fast fashion companies use.

Figure 3: Knowledge on the Fast Fashion Industry Relating to Developing Countries

When looking at this graph, it can be interpreted that teenagers (13-18 year-olds) have limited knowledge on how the fast fashion industry has affected developing countries. When teenagers purchase clothing pieces in our modern day, many of them are not thinking about the negative impact these clothes they purchased have on developing countries and the impact it has on the climate crisis. As they see advertisements online about places to purchase clothes for a cheap price, teenagers usually click on the checkout button without thinking about the impact, as they are only buying clothes that are on trend and look good instead of where the clothing comes from.

This is significantly alarming because when teens don’t know the impact of buying fast fashion, their likelihood of purchasing even more fast fashion is very high, as they lack the knowledge. Moreover, it is unsettling knowing that the teenage generation is so involved with their phones that they don’t even know the impacts on the goods they are purchasing.

Figure 4: Students ages 13-18 Thoughts on Reducing Fast Fashion

While interpreting this graph, it can be seen that the four most chosen categories by students ages 13-18 were all categories that they are the most familiar with and four categories that are more frequently taught in school. Tweens and teens have limited knowledge about the impact the fast fashion industry has on climate change since there are few courses that teach students about sustainability at the middle and high school level. Because of their limited knowledge, when they were asked for their thoughts on reducing fast fashion, they chose the answers that they were most familiar with or the options that were enforced on them the most often. Moreover, many of the top-voted categories were things that were more relevant in a tween or teen’s life. For example, tweens and teens have control over where they shop for their clothing, as to why the most chosen category was to reduce the consumption of fast fashion. Additionally, most tweens and teens are aware of donating to clothing drives and to some extent the positive impact it has on the community as a whole, which is why the votes for the categories that were related to donating clothes also had a high percentage of votes.

Figure 5: Steps Students can Take to Help Developing Countries

Choosing to buy or not buy fast fashion is a choice purely on the consumer. When shopping in stores or online, they have the choice of whether they want to buy from fast fashion companies or they want to buy from a more sustainable company. Since social media has become a prominent part of tweens’ and teens’ lives, when they see influencers and celebrities wearing or promoting clothes they think are attractive or relevant to current trends, they would want to buy the clothes, many times without thinking about where the clothes came from in the first place.

Moreover, when tweens and teens see how cheap the clothing pieces are, they are more likely to buy the clothes as they are spending minimal amounts of money to buy trendy clothing. The reason that “contribute money to organisations that are helping with the problem” and “spreading more awareness in your community and school” might have a lower percentage is because these two actions would be harder for a high school student to conduct as they don’t have the most control over how much money they can contribute to help with the climate crisis situation and especially in my school, it is quite difficult to spread awareness.

Figure 6: Ages Fast Fashion Companies Target

When looking at the graph above the age demographic with the highest votes is 15-16 year-olds. Part of the reason why this age demographic got the most votes is because out of the 45 people who responded to my survey, the majority of them were 15-16 year-olds. Since technology is a prominent thing in our daily lives, many tweens and teens are so caught up with what is going on in the digital world, many times that they are unaware of the other people who are prominent in their lives. Moreover, high school students usually only communicate and hang out with people that are close in age to them, so they most likely just chose the category with the age that they are instead of thinking closely about the question that was being asked.

Figure 7: Class Demographic Target

When examining this graph, it can be seen that the “middle class” choice has the highest percentage of votes. Typically, people in the middle class have a stable income and live a comfortable life, however, when it comes to purchasing clothes they would prefer to buy fast fashion as it is the cheaper option. Even though people in the middle class make enough for a comfortable living, they are still cautious about where the money they make goes and what categories to spend their income. This is the highest chosen category according to students that are between the ages of 13 and 18 because that is the only piece of knowledge that they know from what society tells them and their common sense. Most high school students (13-18) know that the lower and middle classes are more likely to be consumers of fast fashion because of the affordability of fast fashion, which is why the “middle class” was the most selected option.

Figure 8: Better Ways to Get Rid of Old Clothes

When looking at the graph above, the option with the highest percentage is donating to a clothing drive and the second is donating to a women’s shelter that is in need. These two options are the most common and accessible in the city, which makes it easy for people to give their clothing another life with someone else. Furthermore, donating either to a clothing drive or a women’s shelter is also very talked-about and common, which is probably why students from ages 13-18 would have picked these options. The other two options would have probably taken more time and effort which is probably why fewer people chose those two categories.  Moreover, from a high school student’s perspective and with the knowledge that they have, donating clothing is something that is frequently mentioned to them in their lives. These were the two choices that they were the most familiar with and have some knowledge of how to put this action/ initiative into play. 

Inferential Analysis

For Hypothesis 1, Chi-square test of independence to determine if there is a significant association between the frequency of encountering fast fashion ads on social media and the frequency of purchasing fast fashion items.

H0: There is no significant association between the frequency of encountering fast fashion ads on social media and the frequency of purchasing fast fashion items.

H1: There is a significant association between the frequency of encountering fast fashion ads on social media and the frequency of purchasing fast fashion items.

This analysis used survey data from teenagers aged 13-18, capturing their exposure to fast fashion advertisements on different social media platforms and their purchasing frequency of fast fashion items. The author created a contingency table that cross-tabulates the types of fast fashion advertising seen recently (e.g., Instagram, TikTok) with the frequency of purchasing fast fashion items (e.g., Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, Very Often).

Table 1: Chi-square Test of Independence Results

StatisticValue
Chi-square Statistic (X²)                     67.27
p-value           0.242
Degrees of Freedom60
Critical Value (0.05 significance level)67.27
Sample Size (N)45

The p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that there is no significant association between the frequency of encountering fast fashion ads on social media and the frequency of purchasing fast fashion items. Therefore, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. This suggests that while teenagers do frequently see fast fashion advertisements on social media, this exposure alone does not significantly increase the likelihood of purchasing fast fashion items.

For hypothesis 2, the author conducts a logistic regression analysis to evaluate the likelihood of adopting sustainable fashion practices based on hypothetical economic incentives.

H0: Economic incentives and regulatory support do not significantly increase the adoption of sustainable fashion practices among teenagers.

H1: Economic incentives and regulatory support significantly increase the adoption of sustainable fashion practices among teenagers.

In this logistic regression model, the dependent variable is the binary indicator of support for sustainable fashion practices (1 if mentioned, 0 otherwise). The independent variables are the binary indicators of exposure to fast fashion advertisements on Instagram and TikTok.

Table 2: Logistic Regression Results

VariableCoefficient (B)Standard Error (SE)z-valuep-value95% Confidence Interval
Constant24.634361433.21550.00040.9997[-120382.2555, 120431.5241]
Seen Ads on Instagram-22.554961433.2155-0.00040.9997[-120429.4446, 120384.3349]
Seen Ads on TikTok0.75381.47780.51010.6100[-2.1426, 3.6502]
Pseudo R-squared0.144
AIC20.0031
BIC25.4231
Log-Likelihood-7.0016
LL-Null-8.1819
LLR p-value0.30717
No. Observations45
No. Iterations35
ConvergedNo

The Pseudo R-squared value of 0.144 indicates that the model explains 14.4% of the variability in the outcome variable, which is relatively low. The p-values for the coefficients are much higher than 0.05, indicating no significant relationship between the exposure to ads on Instagram and TikTok and the likelihood of supporting sustainable fashion practices.

The convergence issue suggests that the model parameters could not be estimated accurately, likely due to data limitations or multicollinearity issues.

Given the convergence issue and the non-significant results, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. There is no sufficient evidence to suggest that economic incentives and regulatory support significantly increase the adoption of sustainable fashion practices among teenagers based on this analysis.

These results highlight the need for a more robust dataset or additional features to improve the model’s accuracy and reliability in predicting support for sustainable fashion practices

Interview

Interviews were conducted with two individuals. The first was a 35-year-old woman from the Philippines, a country significantly affected by the ramifications of the fast fashion industry and the climate crisis, who is involved in domestic assistance for the researcher’s family. The second was a 45-year-old woman from Singapore, a smaller country with a higher socioeconomic status, who rarely buys fast fashion. They are referred to as P1 and P2, respectively. This interview aimed to gather personal experiences and insights into the socio-economic impacts of fast fashion in developing economies. The chosen interviewees were intentionally chosen to incorporate perspectives from regions directly experiencing the adverse effects of the industry and show the similarities and differences between their answers.

Table 3: Responses from Interviewees

Hi my name is Tina, I am going to conduct an interview with you today to find out more about your experience with climate change in your own country. Please respond truthfully as this interview will not be shared with anyone outside the Lumiere program. Thanks!
QuestionsVerbatims
How has fast fashion impacted your personal life?“People’s lives are impacted by fast fashion since we have a tendency to replace our existing possessions with new ones.” (P1, Female, 35 yrs) “It hasn’t really affected my life because I haven’t bought fast fashion clothing in over ten years.” (P2, Female, 45 yrs)
Have there been any times that you have seen the impact of the fast fashion industry in your country?“ Yes. When something is in style, mostly Filipino people want to own it and will find a method to get it even if they don’t have enough money.”(P1, Female, 35 yrs) “Yes. Even though fast fashion is more suitable for teenagers, I believe it has a negative impact on the environment.”(P2, Female, 45 yrs) 
Briefly describe how these fast fashion waste affected your home country?“Since people typically toss away their old clothing when they get new ones, I believe it has a significant negative impact on the environment.”(P1, Female, 35 yrs) “It has had a serious effect on the environment in Singapore as the space is so small but the population is quite large.”(P2, Female, 45 yrs)  
What are your opinions on buying fast fashion and the fast fashion industry?“Fast fashion has both positive and negative effects. On the plus side, I believe it contributes to the nation’s economic growth. On the other hand, although consumers will have to spend more, they will also feel content and joyful in the process.”(P1, Female, 35 yrs) “I think clothing manufacturers should take measures to recycle products to make their clothing pieces.”(P2, Female, 45 yrs) 
In your opinion, what do you think first world countries (like yours for the people from first world countries)  can do to help reduce fast fashion waste in your country?“ I believe that the governments of the top nations in the world should place a high priority on the environmental effect of fast fashion in our nation”(P1, Female, 35 yrs) “ I think first world countries like mine can raise money for these third world countries so they are able to thrive more.”(P2, Female, 45 yrs) 
What can your community do better about the fashion waste that is produced due to overproduction?“Educating the Filipino people about the environmental effects on their country. In addition, we may teach kids to select high-quality items that will last rather than acquiring a large number of things.”(P1, Female, 35 yrs) “ Educating the Singaporian people about the environmental effect and the consequences behind purchasing fast fashion is something that needs to be taught more.”(P2, Female, 45 yrs) 

Overall Insights from the Interview

When looking at the answers to the questions above, there is definitely a great difference between the two answers of P1 and P2 for question one which is “how has fast fashion impacted your personal life”? As these different individuals live in completely different countries (one being a developed country, the other a developing country), their experience with personally consuming fast fashion is different. The individual that is from the Philippines has seen a greater impact of fast fashion in her personal life, as all the people around her would buy fast fashion pieces often and she has seen firsthand how people in the Philippines are large consumers of fast fashion as it is fairly cheap. On the other hand, the individual who is currently living in Singapore has a whole different experience with how the fast fashion industry has affected her as she has a larger amount of financial freedom in her life. As she said above “I haven’t bought fast fashion in ten years” meaning she has the money to buy better sources of clothing, whereas the individual from the Philippines does not.

However, when looking at the other five questions talking about “how the fast fashion industry affected their countries”, “hat first world countries can do to help eliminate fashion waste in their own country,” “what is their own opinions on buying fast fashion/ the fast fashion industry in general and what can their own communities do better to eliminate fashion waste”, the responses from the two individuals even though they are from different countries with a different background were surprisingly similar. When answering the questions proposed above, both of the individuals answered that they have seen the negative effects of fast fashion in their communities, they both believe that it is a negative impact to the environment, they both believed that first-world countries could contribute more to developing countries, like the Philippines, to help reduce this issue. Moreover, they both believe that the citizens, including children, in their respective countries should be better educated about the consequences of consuming fast fashion.         

The interview was only held for two people from two different countries (in this case, Singapore and the Philippines) because even though it will not provide a precise overview of the experiences of the who population of people from these two places, it will gives the reader of this paper some insight about the differences in their clothing consumption and how the clothing climate crisis affect people from different places in similar or different ways. Additionally, effort was not made to interview a larger demographic because through my survey section of my paper, I was already able to get teenagers’ perspectives on the fast fashion industry around the world, so when conducting the interview, I thought that including a larger demographic was unnecessary.  

Discussion

When designing the look of the framework diagram above, the individual examined patterns within the survey section responses and information derived from the research in the literature review section. After recording observations on physical paper regarding the correlations between themes in survey responses and the literature review, the individual generated titles for different sections of the framework diagram.

The flow of the framework diagram initiates with an exploration of marketing strategies/places of advertisement employed by fast fashion companies. Subsequently, the flow delves into an examination of how these advertising strategies and locations influence potential consumers. The arrows from the boxes labeled “Marketing Strategies/Places” and “Consumers Influenced by the Marketing Strategies” then lead to an analysis of how both these categories impact developing countries. Ultimately, the arrow extends to elucidate how first-world countries can contribute to the reduction of fashion waste and the resulting benefits for developing countries.

The research builds upon the papers of Wern 2023, Joung 2014 and Ritch 2024 theoretical framework by conducting more extensive research on the effects of fast fashion garments in relation to climate change, through synthesising the information from all ten papers in my literature review section. Moreover, through my interview with my two interviewees, in my paper it includes first hand experiences with fast fashion and the short living nature of fast fashion clothing. Also the research builds upon the papers of Paulsson and Ursing, 2020 and Stall-Meadows & Davey, 2013 theoretical framework, by conducting a survey for teenagers, who are prominent social media users and conducting extensive research on the advertising approaches by the different companies, how these advertising affect people’s desire to purchase these unsustainability made garments and the different strategies that are used.  

The gap that my paper fills is the gap of the lack of papers that is available when it comes to fast fashion and sustainability. There are not enough articles and papers out there that particularly highlight the determinants of producing and consuming fast fashion garments. Many people just buy these fashion pieces from these stores without thinking about the impact their purchase has on the environment. This paper is able to give them a full in depth look on the fast fashion industry in a negative lens and let people know the reality.

Figure 9: Framework Diagram

Marketing Strategies/ Places

Sustainable Labels

When referring back to my literature review section, it could be seen that as the climate crisis becomes more recognized and accepted by people all around the world, more and more people have slowly drifted away from buying fast fashion pieces. Many people have become more conscious of the effects purchasing fast fashion has on the environment, seeing it firsthand at many places, causing people to consume less fast fashion as it does not benefit our future. However, even though climate change has become more severe in the last few years, fast fashion companies like H&M and Zara still need to make a profit, so as a way to attract more customers, they have started to put sustainable labels either on their clothing tags or labels, so they are able to show their potential customers that the clothes that these companies produce are actually made with sustainable material3.

Social Media Advertisements

Teenagers in our current day usually spend a significant amount of time on social media, whether that is on messaging apps like Discord and WeChat or on social media platforms that are used to create content like Instagram or TikTok. Referring back to the survey section of my paper, it can be seen that the highest percentage of high school students (13-18 years old) have recently seen advertisements from Instagram and TikTok, meaning they spent a lot of time on these social media platforms. Teens today typically spend a minimum of four hours a day on social media13 As the functions on these social media platforms have increased, fast fashion companies have taken advantage of that by creating advertisements that are similar to the original post format, that when teens and tweens are scrolling through their feed, they barely notice the difference between their normal feed and these ads. These companies also include some kind of graphic and a link on these advertisement posts so teenagers would be more likely to press on it. This way fast fashion companies are able to attract more customers that are willing to buy their products and gain a larger profit. Moreover, since there are so many teenagers on these social media platforms that don’t make an income themselves, they may be more willing to purchase cheaper clothing when these kinds of ads pop up on their feed: the percentage of them actually purchasing the item is very high14  

Pleasing Colors and Graphics

In our modern day, with the advancement in technology, fast fashion companies have shifted the way they make their advertisements to fit the target demographic and pleasing to their potential consumers. These fast fashion companies have started to use brighter colours to attract their customers’ attention. They are trying to use colours that would catch the attention of tweens and teens, as they are the age demographic that would most likely buy fast fashion products. Additionally, with the bright colours, they have also started to add many different layouts of what the clothes actually look like with these ad posts, so the customers have a better idea of what the clothes actually look like on, instead of just having photos of the clothes on the clothing rack. By doing this, these fast fashion companies are hoping to attract more customers as now they are able to see the clothing pieces with more angels15 When referring back to my survey section of the paper, when looking at what makes an advertisement effective according to a high school student, 40% of the participants in my survey chose “colour” and 75% chose “graphics shown”. This shows that the factor of the advertisements that attracts tweens and teens the most is when there are bright colours that catch their eyes right away and when they have a clear idea of what the clothing pieces look like.

Consumers Influenced by the Marketing Strategies

Middle to Lower Class Citizens

Middle to lower-class citizens are the class demographic that is the most influenced by these new marketing strategies because since citizens in the middle and lower classes make a limited amount of money for their living expenses, they have to be more strategic about what they do with that money. They would probably spend most of their income on necessities like food to feed their families and use the money to keep a roof over their heads, putting less of their income into the clothes they are buying, meaning they would probably need to buy more fast fashion items to fulfill their basic needs. Even if they are climate-conscious, they lack financial freedom and  have little choice but to purchase these fast fashion items10 Moreover, as the fast fashion industry has started to put sustainability labels on their clothing, the regular consumers of fast fashion that are the majority of the middle or lower class citizens that are more climate-conscious might no longer feel bad buying fast fashion pieces, meaning they might consume more fast fashion pieces16 When referring back to the survey section of my paper, high school students (13-18 year-olds), when asked the question “what class demographic do you think fast fashion brands get the most revenue from, the highest voting class demographic was the middle class and the second most voted was the lower class. Even though 13-18 year-olds might not have an in-depth understanding of the impacts of fast fashion in climate change and how it affects developing countries, they still thought that the middle class would most likely be frequent consumers of fast fashion, meaning the fact that fast fashion affects the middle class the most is well known. 

Tweens and Teens

On social media there are so many influencers and celebrities that are showing their “outfit of the day” and many of them are starting fashion trends like the “denim on denim” trend. When teenagers are scrolling through their feed on social media platforms, as they come across these influencers and celebrities, they are usually interested in where the clothes are from, therefore either commenting on the influencer/celebrity’s comment section or doing a reverse image search, so they are able to purchase the same clothes these famous people are wearing.  Since tweens and teens are usually not educated enough about where the fabrication of their clothing comes from, after they find out where the celebrity bought the clothing, sometimes without thinking about where the clothing was fabricated, they press the buy button. Moreover, as tweens and teens see these trends that are happening, many of them have FOMO, making them follow the trends blindly, causing them to purchase a large number of clothes from these fast fashion companies17

Ways Developing Countries are Affected

Unclean Air

Since the production of fast fashion clothing uses cheap and unsustainable materials, when overproduction occurs, large amounts of CO2 get released into the air in developing countries, affecting many people’s health. Moreover, since developing countries are usually places that produce the most fast fashion as the payment for labour is cheaper, as these people work endless hours in these factories producing fast fashion, these factories are producing endless CO2 emissions affecting the air quality in their countries. As developing countries are not as advanced as first world countries like Canada or the USA, after large amounts of CO2 is produced in the air of their countries, even though the citizens know that they are being negatively affected by the air quality, many of these countries don’t have the resources to do something about this issue, so as the production of fast fashion goes on, the air quality will get worse and worse18

Unsafe Drinking Water

As people get rid of their old/ worn fast fashion clothing, it usually ends up in the waters of developing countries and gets washed up to shore. This causes the ocean, lakes, and rivers in these countries to be severely polluted as these clothes cannot be dissolved or removed. In these developing countries, Many of the citizens of developing countries don’t have access to a clean water source, as the government doesn’t have enough money/resources to provide that to the citizens, meaning the main source of water for many of the households in developing countries comes from lakes and rivers. However, since the water has become so contaminated with fashion waste, if people drink from it, they could become severely sick. Additionally this is very negative to these countries as the population is usually very large, meaning this problem with the fast fashion industry can affect people at an alarming rate18

Child Labours/Long Working Hours Without Pay

The main downside to the production of fast fashion is the cheap labour. The only way that fast fashion companies are able to sell their clothing pieces for such a cheap price is because of the cheap labour. Since many citizens of developing countries usually don’t have many choices in the ways they can support their families, people from ages 6 all the way until adulthood often get employed by these fast fashion production companies.. The working conditions of these employed children, teens, and adults are very poor as they have to be at their machinery producing clothes that are made from unsustainable materials. Moreover, working in these factories for these kids can create an extremely unsafe environment. Using large machinery in the wrong way can lead to life-threatening injuries. Additionally, the salary they receive is also below minimum wage, which is illegal. However, since they don’t have a choice but to do this kind of work and make an income, many of these people choose to work at these factories despite the unsafe working conditions and low payment19

Things First World Countries can do to Reduce Waste

Donate Cloths to Womens Shelters and Clothing Drives

A better alternative to throwing away old/worn clothing is to donate them to women’s shelters that are in need or to clothing drives. This way people who are in need of clothing get their necessities met and it doesn’t contribute to fashion waste. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a rise in the number of homeless people and people who can’t afford necessities like clothing20 When people donate to either women’s shelters or clothing drives, they are not only providing warm clothes for people who can’t afford them, but they are also eliminating waste that will eventually end up in the oceans21 If more people are able to donate their clothing instead of throwing them away, the climate crisis will improve as well for developing and first-world countries because less CO2 will be produced in the air due to overproduction. When referring back to the survey section of my paper, in the section that says “What are some better ways to get rid of your old clothes?”, the choice with the most votes is donating to a women’s shelter or just donating clothes in general, demonstrating that even high school students with limited knowledge on how the fast fashion industry affects climate change still understand that donating their old clothing is a positive solution in creating less textile waste.

Buying Clothes from Alternative Places

In our current society, there are several  alternatives to fast fashion that sell clothing for a fair price, such as the company Oak and Fort which uses organic materials in the production of their clothing. If more people cared more about where their clothes came from and stopped buying from fast fashion companies very often, then the working conditions for individuals in developing countries and the climate crisis would improve drastically22 One of the main reasons for severe climate change is due to the production of CO2 emissions. If people stopped buying fast fashion pieces or stopped thinking there was a need to purchase fast fashion items, then there would be less CO2 produced into the air since there will be less production of unsustainable fashion. The literature review section of the paper states that in 2018, the fashion sector was responsible for approximately 2.1 billion metric tons of GHG emissions, half of which were created by fast fashion23 Moreover, if people stopped thinking that they have a constant need to buy fast fashion, then the people working in these factories that produce these clothing will not need to work in these poor conditions anymore, which will benefit their health a lot10

Limitations and Future Directions

The research faced several limitations during the execution of the interview and survey components. One significant challenge was engaging the target demographic of individuals aged 13-18 to participate in the survey. Given their busy schedules and potential lack of interest in completing questionnaires, achieving a high response rate was difficult. Coordinating an interview time with the housekeeper also presented challenges due to conflicting schedules and tight time constraints for both parties involved.

Furthermore, the focus on the impact of the fast fashion industry on developing countries posed a knowledge gap among survey respondents. Many participants were unfamiliar with the negative aspects of the fast fashion industry, which may have influenced the depth and quality of the responses received. The survey’s limited age range also restricted the representativeness of the findings across broader demographics, potentially affecting the accuracy and detail of the insights gathered regarding purchasing habits and awareness of the fast fashion industry’s impact.

For future research, several questions merit exploration to deepen understanding and address gaps identified in this study. Investigating how educational institutions can improve awareness and understanding of the negative consequences of fast fashion could yield valuable insights. Additionally, exploring alternatives to fast fashion consumption and strategies to mitigate overproduction within the industry could contribute to more sustainable practices and consumer behaviours.

Conclusion

In our ever-evolving world of technology, the fast fashion industry is able to gain a larger audience through effective advertising strategies targeting teens and tweens, all while neglecting to mention the negative impact it has on developing countries and the environment. In this paper, there are three main methodological approaches used, including a literature review, a survey, and an interview with two different individuals. These approaches analyze advertising strategies the fast fashion companies primarily use, the target audiences of these fast fashion companies, and how the fast fashion industry affects the environment and climate change. The researcher explores how fast fashion brands use marketing to appear climate-friendly compared to the industry’s real-world effects on developing countries, viewed through a lens of the workers behind the mass production of fast fashion garments and air and water pollution. Moreover, this paper also touches on the effect of social media and how that has transformed fast fashion companies’ advertising techniques and has given these companies more effective options for advertisement, while reaching a larger audience. The research has highlighted the effects of climate change relating to the fast fashion industry and how it affects developing countries. The research has also identified the need for further research to address the challenges and issues faced by this industry.  The findings of this research can be used to develop better solutions for the issue of overproduction in the fast fashion industry and come up with more and better ideas to help third-world countries that are currently being affected by the impact. People from first-world countries should be more conscious about where they are buying their clothing, begin repurposing/ reusing their old clothing, and if possible, begin shopping at sustainable brands. This way people in first and developing countries will be positively impacted and the climate crisis will be decreased.  

Even though there is always the possibility that consumers of fast fashion will not change at an instant as these consumers might still not be willing to spend more money on their clothing, especially if there are many people in a family. However, it is important for people to be educated on where their source of clothing is coming from and how the overconsumption of these unsustainable clothing is affecting people around the world. This will be a good first step for people, as they begin to understand the impact and why it is essential to buy from fashion companies that have sustainable practices.

References

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