HIV Life Cycle

AIDS is a deadly condition that kills millions of people every year. When the immune system is disabled by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), AIDS can occur. This often leads to death. Understanding the life cycle of HIV can introduce possible drugs or vaccines, which could prevent the immune system from being invaded by HIV. HIV is a retrovirus, which is a virus that contains single stranded RNA (ssRNA). An HIV retrovirus destroys cells of […]

The Potential of Plantibodies

Imagine a huge field of verdant tobacco leaves. You may shake your head thinking that the leaves could soon become carcinogenic cigarettes. But what you probably do not know is that this tobacco is going to be used for a much better purpose. Surprisingly, it may be instrumental in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, anthrax and rabies and even the prevention of cavities. Instead of causing disease, tobacco has the potential to treat […]

A Study of Menadione-Induced Cytotoxicity Reduction in Yeast Cells by Selected Enzymes

Abstract: The experiment tested whether Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) would keep yeast cells exposed to menadione (Vitamin K3) alive by reducing the oxidative stress caused by menadione-induced cytotoxicity. Catalase catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, while SOD converts superoxide anions into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Because SOD produces additional hydrogen peroxide, Catalase was hypothesized to be more effective than SOD in reducing menadione-induced cytotoxicity. Throughout the experiment, method of transcriptional […]

Behind the Mechanics of Brain Injury: The Buckling of Microtubules in Axons

The mechanics of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are beginning to be unveiled.  A team at the University of Pennsylvania, led by Douglas Smith, has discovered exactly what happens when a brain experiences a sudden blow.  The team observed microtubules snapping inside the axons, the long fibers that extend from brain cells. Microtubules are the “superhighways of protein transfer,” according to Douglas Smith ((Sanders, Laura. "Brain at the Breaking Point." ScienceNews 13 Mar 2010: n. pag. […]