Zika Virus: Novel Detection Techniques and Treatment

Abstract

The United States is one of the countries affected by this disease, which cause microcephaly in newborns. In order to stop the spread, new novel detection techniques were developed such as RT-Lamp and the RT-PCR and treatments as Emricasan, Niclosamide and CDK, these drugs can help prevent Zika virus duplication. Therefore, with these new advancements in technology and medicine the Zika will have a much slimmer chance of creating chaos in today’s society.

Introduction

Outbreaks of the Zika Virus have been re-emerging ever since its documentation in 1947 from Uganda. It was then recognized in people in 1952 in Nigeria. Then in 2007 the first real outbreak began on the island of Yap. Flare-ups of these infections have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.  Then it entered South America; it was identified in Brazil in May 2015. In July 2015 Brazil identified a relationship between the Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré disorder.  By the beginning of February 2016, nearby transmission of the disease had been accounted from more than 20 nations and regions in the Americas ((World Health Organization. “Zika Virus”.  August 4, 2016)).

On February 1, 2016, World Health Organization declared the numerous microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders a health emergency ((World Health Organization. “WHO Director-General summarizes the outcome of the Emergency Committee regarding clusters of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome”. February 1, 2016)). To start with, Zika is spreading at an incredible speed, it has reached the majority of Latin America and Caribbean areas. The virus has even reached as far as Miami Florida ((The Straitstimes. “All you need to know about the Zika virus and the threat it poses”. August 31, 2016)).   There have been reports of the virus in a neighbourhood in Miami Florida to be the first case of the Zika virus in the United States of America. These revelations have activated alerts all over the world.

Clinical Presentations

The Zika virus is defined as a “disease caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes” ((World Health Organization. “Zika Virus”. August 4, 2016)).  It can also be spread through sexual contact with a contaminated partner. Brazilian authorities began to watch a much higher than a typical occurrence of microcephaly and other extreme birth imperfections from locals that had been hardest hit by this disease. Infants of Zika infected mother’s build up a condition known as microcephaly. Microcephaly happens when a child's brain does not completely form. Thus, these children are conceived with smaller than-typical heads.

Detection Techniques

RT-Lamp

Engineers have created a novel detection technique utilizing RT-Lamp. The client would just give a spit test and the color in the gadget will change its shading to blue when the genetic examines the nearness of the infection ((Mihai, Andrei. ZME Science “Penn engineers develop $2 portable Zika test”. July 6, 2016)). In any case, this sort of test requires the viral arrangement of the patient's sample to be opened up in various exact temperature changes so as to accomplish perceptible levels. This is the place this examination ventures in. They built up a technique, which gives a genetic test without requiring the certain lab forms. Their answer includes a canteen jug, an independent warming component that uses a concoction response from versatile military proportions and a wax-like material that retains overabundance heat by softening ((Raphael, John. Nature World News “Zika Update: Engineers Develop New Portable Zika Test Costing Only $2”. July 6, 2016)). A 3-D printed cover fits on top of the canteen and holds the majority of the test's parts set up. With the new Zika infection test pack, the scientists utilized an option procedure known as Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification, or RT-Lamp, rather than the RT-PCR. Thusly, the specialists could sidestep the sensitive research center work required in TR-PCR.

RT-PCR Test

A relatively new technique, the only possible way of reliable way of knowing if a woman has the Zika virus is the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test which looks for genetic material of the virus in blood or urine ((The Straitstimes. “All you need to know about the Zika virus and the threat it poses”. August 31, 2016)). However, it takes about 5 to 7 days before you can know if you have contracted the Zika virus.

Treatment

People with the Zika virus are usually fine within a couple of weeks. But, women that are pregnant and have been infected by the virus are in danger of their unborn baby contracting microcephaly. People that have been infected with the Zika infection need to get a lot of rest, drink enough liquids, take medication if necessary, and also see a doctor if it gets worse. Baby’s with microcephaly, on the other hand, is born with a smaller head than a normal baby’s head.

Emricasan, Niclosamide and CDK

Emiracsan, Niclosamide and a CDK inhibitor known as PHA-690509, are distinguished as decreasing neuronal cell demise brought about by Zika infection disease. Scientists recognized two classes of mixes successful against this virus: one is antiviral, and the other prevents Zika-related brain cell death. The mixes incorporate Emricasan, a drug as of now being assessed in a clinical trial to decrease liver damage and fibrosis and Niclosamide, a U. S. Nourishment and Drug Administration-endorsed drug for use in people to treat worm diseases ((“Florida State University News FSU research team makes Zika drug breakthrough”. August 29, 2016))

Also, the specialists distinguished nine cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. CDK more often than not is included in direction of cell procedures and additionally ordinary mental health, however the Zika infection can adversely influence this procedure.  These identified compounds can potentially be used to inhibit Zika virus replication and reduce its ability to kill brain cells ((“National Institutes of Health “NIH collaboration helps advance potential Zika treatments”. August 29, 2016)).

These mixes were successful either in hindering the replication of Zika or in keeping the infection from slaughtering cerebrum cells. For instance, Emricasan averts cell passing, and Niclosamide and the nine CDK inhibitors stop the infection's replication. Also, CDK inhibitors might be valuable in treating non-pregnant patients who confront an expanded danger of Guillain-Barré disorder and different conditions started by Zika contamination.

Discussion

Actually there are two ways to detect the Zika virus:  RT-Lamp and RC-PCR Test.  They are very important in the early detection of this disease and they will continue to be crucial for its diagnostics. One advantage of the RC-PCR is its ability to look for genetic material of the virus in the blood or urine to detect the Zika virus. A disadvantage is that it will take 5 to 7 days, before you can know if you have contracted it. One solution was the development of RT-Lamp a genetic assay that only requires a sample to be kept at a steady temperature, instead of it being burned through various watchful temperature changes ((Mihai, Andrei. ZME Science “Penn engineers develop $2 portable Zika test”. July 6, 2016)).

Moreover, there are no current treatments for the Zika virus, however, scientists have identified compounds that can be used to prevent the replication and reduce its ability to kill brain cells. 7 Therefore, these compounds in the pharmaceutical arsenal may work against mosquito-borne Zika virus infections ((ScienceDaily. Johns Hopkins Medicine. “New hope for Zika treatment found in large-scale screen of existing drugs: Johns Hopkins researchers join collaborative group to screen 6,000 existing drugs in hopes of finding treatments for Zika Virus infection”. August 29, 2016.

Furthermore, there are no current vaccines for the Zika virus; however, many new technological devices are coming out, detecting it in people. Therefore, this is a world health public concern and all the countries work to develop a cure for this infectious disease.

References

  1. “WHO Director-General summarizes the outcome of the Emergency Committee regarding clusters of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome”. World Health Organization.  February 1, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/emergency-committee-zika-microcephaly/en/
  2. Brolo, Alexandre.  “The Zika Virus:  What one Canadian researcher is doing to help”. Hospital News.  August 2016 Edition, Volume 29, Issue 8, page 20.
  3. “Zika Virus”. World Health Organization. August 4, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016, from, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
  4. “Advice for people living in or traveling to South Florida”.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  August 22, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/
  5. “All you need to know about the Zika virus and the threat it poses”. The Straitstimes. August 31, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016, from http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/all-you-need-to-know-about-the-zika-virus-and-the-threat-it-poses
  6. “FSU research team makes Zika drug breakthrough”. Florida State University News. August 29, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2016, from https://news.fsu.edu/news/science-technology/2016/08/29/fsu-research-team-makes-zika-drug-breakthrough/
  7. “NIH collaboration helps advance potential Zika treatments”. National Institutes of Health. August 29, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016, from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-collaboration-helps-advance-potential-zika-treatments
  8. Raphael, John. “Zika Update: Engineers Develop New Portable Zika Test Costing Only $2”. Nature World News. July 6, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016, from http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/24811/20160706/zika-update-engineers-develop-new-portable-test-costing-2.htm
  9. Mihai, Andrei. “Penn engineers develop $2 portable Zika test”. ZME Science. July 6, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://www.zmescience.com/medicine/diseases-medicine/zika-test-06072016/
  10. Johns Hopkins Medicine. “New hope for Zika treatment found in large-scale screen of existing drugs: Johns Hopkins researchers join collaborative group to screen 6,000 existing drugs in hopes of finding treatments for Zika Virus infection”. ScienceDaily. August 29, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160829122248.htm
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